Phonological Awareness is the knowledge of sounds i. If your child is doing the segmenting, try to mess up on purpose sometimes and see if they catch your mistake! A book is a great way to target different levels of segmenting and different phonological awareness skills. When working on phonological awareness skills, you want to facilitate learning by providing children with visual support as well. A cupcake without cup is simply a cake, and all they will have left is the picture of a cake. Therefore, when doing segmenting tasks with your child, take into account their age and skills and start at an appropriate level. Phonological awareness skills can also be known as pre-literacy. This emphasizes that rhyming is only at the end of the word, not at the beginning.
For instance, learning to manipulate words at the level of syllables is easier than at the level of sounds. Flashcards can be handy to label the letters of the alphabet but learning through books, writing and play is much more functional for your child. You can give them pictures and have them decide which words rhyme together. Phonological skills, from most basic to advanced Description Word awareness Tracking the words in sentences. You can also take common sentences that you or your child use daily and make a segmenting activity out of it like the pictures above. The information in this chart was compiled over many years from a variety of sources.
Typically, we work on segmenting and blending simultaneously. Note: This semantic language skill is much less directly predictive of reading than the skills that follow and less important to teach directly Gillon, 2004. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Sometimes a book has too much writing and the visual field is overcrowded for a child to be able to focus on a single sentence. Manipulate phonemes by removing, adding, or substituting sounds e.
Segmenting involves the ability to take a unit and break it up into smaller parts. It is not so much a phonological skill as a semantic meaning-based language skill. This will raise their awareness that those symbols on the book mean something and they will start to develop their skills and understanding of what is a sentence, a word, and a letter. Responsiveness to rhyme and alliteration during word play Enjoying and reciting learned rhyming words or alliterative phrases in familiar storybooks or nursery rhymes. Blend sounds into words e. Kid Sense Child Development provides Occupational Therapy and Speech Therapy services to children with developmental challenges in their movement, play, speech, language, learning and behaviour. .
Similar to segmenting, the ability to blend larger units emerges first. It is composed of different skills but basically involves the ability to manipulate sounds, words, identify letters and sounds, rhyming, segmenting and blending. Children are usually very proud of themselves once they can write their names and it is really neat to see the progress each time they attempt their name. It also helps to have a picture associated to the word that your child has constructed. Also, children learn to identify phonemes at the end of words first, given rhyming has to do with endings, it is an easier target since they have had practice already analyzing ends of words. Segmenting skills emerge with the ability to segment larger units first.
Segment the phonemes in two- or three-sound words, moving to four- and five- sound words as the student becomes proficient e. Like I said, I try to always make phonological awareness activities functional but also fun. Make sure that the two sound choices are very different so it is easier for them e. Always make sure to blend the word at the end! As mentioned previously, I will use physical objects such as letter blocks and have the child spell out a simple word. After all it is unfair to test something a child does not yet master.
Once they have a good foundation you can do activities auditorily in play. Tell your child, you are going to talk like a robot and they have to guess what word you are trying to say. I like to always have the printed word along with the picture. You can have a child choose word pairs that rhyme by playing a matching game. Prerequisite to phonological awareness is basic listening skill; the acquisition of a several-thousand word vocabulary; the ability to imitate and produce basic sentence structures; and the use of language to express needs, react to others, comment on experience, and understand what others intend. We are the longest continually owned private provider of paediatric Occupational Therapy in Adelaide, South Australia.
You can also reverse the roles and work on segmenting by having your child talk like a robot and you have to blend the word. One way I help children learn how to rhyme is by using word families words that end with the same sounds. To be able to do this, your child has to have had mastered the ability to segment and blend phonemes as well as identify phonemes. Before they can generate their own rhymes without any visual support or choices. Phoneme awareness Identify and match the initial sounds in words, then the final and middle sounds e. However, if I do that, I choose words that also look the same in their ending because it can get very confusing for the child if the words sound alike but do not have the same letters e. Table 2 is a more specific synthesis of several research reviews and summaries Adams et al.